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Harvard Corporate Finance Final Exam 1

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Harvard Corporate Finance Final Exam 1 - All Correct and Tested Solutions
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Q1. An optimal current ratio should be greater than 1.0.



Q2. The cost of debt is generally lower than the cost of equity.



Q3. Which of the following are equivalent under M&M proposition I?

Maximizing firm value and maximizing firm profit

Maximizing firm value and minimizing the cost of capital

Minimizing firm’s cost of capital and minimizing firm’s debt burden

Maximizing profit and minimizing taxes

Q4. In general, an increase in a liability is a source of funds.



Q5. Which of the following expresses the value of a levered firm (VL) in the Static Tradeoff model of optimal capital structure? [Note: VU denotes the value of the unlevered firm; CFD denotes expected costs of financial distress; and PV denotes present value.]

VL = PV(Tax Shield) – PV(CFD)

VL = VU + PV(Tax Shield) / PV(CFD)

VL = VU + PV(Tax Shield) – PV(CFD)

VL = VU + PV(Tax Shield)

Q6. The beta for the market as a whole equals 1.0.



Q7. A company’s beta (from the CAPM) is affected by its capital structure.



Q8. Which of the following are sources of funds in a statement of sources and uses?

I. Collection of accounts receivables

II. Reduction of long-term debt

III. Payment of dividends

IV. Reduction in the cash account

I only

II and III

III and IV

I and IV

Q9. Share repurchases and dividend payouts are most likely to differ in their

effects on a firm’s capital structure

effects on corporate taxes.

effects on corporate cash flow.

effects on shareholders’ personal taxes

Q10. Analysis of a company’s financial statements: Below are simplified versions of the balance sheet and income statement for Toys by Tom, Inc. Use this information to answer the following question.

If sales in 2003 were $10,000, what is the compounded average growth rate?




Not enough information available

Q11. The cost of capital for an all-equity-financed company that pays no dividends is zero.



Q12. What is the expected return on a risky investment where

the risk free rate is 5.1%;

the investment’s beta is 1.4;

the equity market risk premium is 5.0%; and

the cost of debt is 4.5%.






Q13. External funding needs are computed as:

Projected total assets – (projected liabilities + projected net worth)

Projected total assets – (actual liabilities + net worth)

Projected current assets – (projected current liabilities + net worth)

None of the above

Q14. Common-size financial statements are constructed in order to:

Adjust for inflation and risk

Facilitate comparisons of different-sized companies

To comply with SEC requirements

All of the above

Q15. “Real” activities create cash for a business, while “financial” activities distribute cash within the company.



Q16. A company has net income of $20,000 and a tax rate of 35 percent. Its total debt is $25,000, with principal payments of $5,000 due at the end of each year and an annual interest rate of 8%. What will be the company’s interest tax shield in the upcoming year?





Q17. The Pecking Order Theory of capital structure rests on an assumption of

agency costs.

barriers to entry.

asymmetric information.

tax shields and cost of financial distress.

Q18. Which is a commonly used proxy for the “risk-free rate”?

The average historical interest rate on long-term government bonds

The current market rate interest rate on a government-insured savings account

The current yield to maturity on a long-term government bond

The rate of return on a low volatility stock

Q19. The sustainable growth rate is the maximum growth rate achievable over an extended period of time.



Q20. You are saving money for a down payment on a house. Suppose you want to have total savings of $20,000 in 10 years time and you have currently $5,000. What annual interest rate do you need to earn on your initial investment, assuming you contribute no additional savings?





Q21. Which of the following ratios appears on a common-size balance sheet?

I. Debt to asset ratio

II. Net working capital to total assets

III. Net profit margin


I only

I and III

III only

Q22. An increase in financial leverage generally results in a higher return on equity (ROE).



Q23. Which of the following is commonly forecasted as a percent of sales:

Common stock

Gross profit

Long-term debt

Revolving credit

Q24. Which of the following actions, all else being equal, will increase the sustainable growth rate?

Increasing asset turnover

Reducing dividend payout

Increasing leverage

All of the above

Q25. A company’s return on assets should be greater than its return on equity.



Q26. The item that roughly divides “real” from “financial” activities on an income statement is:


Interest Expense

SG&A Expense

None of the above

Q27. In the CAPM, what does the parameter beta measure?

Non-systematic (diversifiable) risk

Systematic (non-diversifiable) risk

Total risk

Risk-adjusted stock returns

Q28. The higher the opportunity cost of capital the higher the NPV.



Q29. What is the present value of a growing perpetuity that makes a payment of $100 in the first year, which thereafter grows at 3% per year? Apply a discount rate of 7%.





Q30. The owners of a firm facing a high probability of bankruptcy prefer to invest in ____ projects, because ______.

safer; riskier projects make bankruptcy more likely

no new; the firm is likely to go bankrupt anyway

risky; the shareholders have little to lose and might win if successful

risky; creditors prefer taking a gamble rather than having the company default

Q31. GoodTimes, Inc. has asset turnover of 0.5 times, a net profit margin of 10% and average total assets of $100, what is its net income (assuming no unusual items)?




The answer cannot be determined with the information provided.

Q32. Analysis of a company’s financial statements: Below are simplified versions of the balance sheet and income statement for Toys by Tom, Inc. Use this information to answer the following question.

A 15% increase in inventory turns for Toys by Tom, Inc. would bring this ratio to ____, suggesting ________ in ________.

109 days; a deterioration; profitability

3.9 days; a deterioration; profitability

4.8 times; an improvement; efficiency

3.9 times; an improvement; efficiency

Q33. Biases can and should always be eliminated in financial forecasts.



Q34. The cash conversion cycle is calculated as:

Days in Inventory + Collection Period

Days in Inventory – Payables Period

Days in Inventory + Collection Period – Payables Period

None of the above

Q35. Enterprise Free Cash Flows should include which of the following:

I. Capital expenditures

II. Financing costs

III. Taxes

IV. Working capital requirements

I and IV

I, II and IV

I , III and IV


Q36. Which of the following is correct?

I. Tax shields make debt financing more attractive, all else equal.

II. A firm’s debt ratio falls when it uses excess cash to pay dividends.

III. The cost of equity is low for firms that pay no dividends, all else equal.

IV. Bankruptcy costs decrease the benefits of debt financing all else equal.

I and IV

I, II and IV

I, III and IV

I, II, III and IV

Q37. If you invest $2,000 today for three years at 5% interest paid annually, you will earn a total of $_____ in interest. Assume you re-invest all interest.





Q38. A share repurchase is financially equivalent to a dividend.



Q39. A project with an internal rate of return greater than the cost of capital should always be accepted.



Q40. You are trying to decide whether to accept or reject a one-year project. The project is estimated to generate $5,000 in incremental gross profit, which includes $200 in depreciation. Incremental SG&A expense is $400. At a 35% tax rate, the after-tax incremental cash flow is:





Q41. The Pecking Order Theory of capital structure implies a unique optimum capital structure.



Q42. A perpetuity is a stream of cash flows that lasts forever.



Q43. Grandma’s Applesauce, Inc. has a 0.60 probability of a good year with operating cash flow of $50,000; and 0.40 probability of a bad year with operating cash flow of $30,000. The company has a debt of $35,000 with 8 percent interest due next year. Assuming the company has no means of servicing its debt other than operations, and a 0% tax rate, which of the following is true?

Shareholders expected claim is $12,200

Creditors expected claim is $37,800

Creditors expected claim is $34,680

None of the above

Q44. What is the risk premium for a stock where

the risk free rate is 5.1%;

the equity market risk premium is 5.0%; and

the beta of the stock is 1.2.






Q45. A company builds a new plant and finances its construction by issuing stock. Which ratio is least likely to be affected, all else being equal?

Current ratio

Debt to equity ratio

Debt to asset ratio

Net fixed assets to total assets

Q46. A company has net working capital of $0, current liabilities of $25 and total assets equal to $100. What is its current ratio?





Q47. The Static Tradeoff theory of capital structure implies that firms with higher business risk should have lower leverage.



Q48. A firm is all equity financed, with 10,000 outstanding shares with a market value of $20 each. Its net income was $30,000, and it decides to pay a cash dividend of $2,000. Calculate the value of each share after the dividend payout.




Not enough information

Q49. The phenomenon of compounding connotes which of the following?

Investment of principal for a prolonged period

Interest earned over a prolonged period

Earning income on previously earned income

Rising interest rates over time

Q50. The cash cycle measures the days required to produce finished goods or delivered services.


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